Topics at AZT

In research projects and studies, AZT's experts regularly examine various issues relating to automotive technology and road safety. The results are used in internal training measures and processes as well as in public publications and campaigns. 

  • Source: Pixabay


    The purpose of the study was to get a representative picture of the accident situation. Hereby the objective was to describe conflict-triggering situations, environmental conditions and driving scenarios and, if possible, to identify corner cases.

    Corner cases are accidents that "stand out" from the rest of the accident scene, i.e., they cannot be assigned to frequently occurring accident situations. In the safeguarding of future highly automated driving functions, these accidents are of particular interest because they are potentially less obvious and therefore have a high value for the safety analysis.

    To answer the various questions, more than 1,000 highway accidents were selected from the set of all Allianz claims from 2019. These cases were evaluated in detail, analyzed for certain characteristics and the results entered into an accident database.


    Key findings of the study:

    - A large proportion of accidents occur during or as a result of a lane change by the truck. In most cases, restricted visibility conditions of the truck driver - especially on the passenger side - play a crucial role. These accidents also happen more frequently at highway interchanges. Here the truck driver may be forced to change lanes due to branching or merging lanes, which leads to an increase in the number of claims.

    - Another focus is rear-end collisions. The reason is often the driver's distraction or inattention. Here, the crash may vary widely in terms of seriousness, depending on the traffic situation on the highway at that moment. Traffic jams that occur unexpectedly can lead to particularly serious accidents.

    - Another frequent occurrence is the vehicle drifting off the road to the left or right. However, the existing crash barriers can usually prevent serious accidents. Minor side collisions, mostly with passenger cars, are more common in construction areas.

    For further information, please contact:


    In preparation of this year's Allianz Motor Day, Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser and a team from Corporate Communications travelled to Kronach to get an on-site impression of the operation of autonomous shuttles. The result is a short video that provides interesting insights about the technology and the fields of application of autonomous shuttles. A brief report and the video can be accessed via following link:  Der Weg zum autonomen Fahren – Allianz Deutschland AG


    Choosing selected topics, Wolfgang Fastenmeier, Uwe Ewert, Jörg Kubitzki and Herbert Gstalter took a close look at new as well as old apparent truths and present the current state of research. Are women or men the better drivers? Much is relativized by the differences in driving performance. Seniors are dangerous drivers? However, their accident risks are lower than assumed. Age does not define a loss of driving ability, but mandatory tests bring new dangers - a recognized fact. And, in spite of all this, are we striving to get around in an environmentally friendly way? Research paints a different picture. One of convenience and egoism. Further book information in German language can be found here.


    The "L3Pilot" project led by Volkswagen AG and funded by the EU Commission celebrated its successful closing in October at the ITS World Congress in Hamburg.

    The goal of the four-year project was to investigate the feasibility of automated driving as a safe and efficient transportation solution and to evaluate the effects of introducing and spreading automated vehicles.

    In addition to the Allianz Center for Technology, the project involved vehicle manufacturers, suppliers as well as research institutions, universities and government agencies.

    The project equipped 70 vehicles. The test fleet included 13 different vehicle brands, from passenger cars to SUVs. More than 400.000 km were driven on highways, including 200.000 km in automated mode and 200.000 km in manual mode as a basis for comparing user experience and assessing impact. More than 24.000 km were driven in automated mode in city traffic.


    With the goal of focusing the user experience of automated driving functions, more than 1.000 people participated in pilot tests and complementary tests in a virtual environment.

    The project focused on SAE Level 3 automated driving functions on highways and in urban traffic, while SAE Level 4 functions focused exclusively on parking and short-range scenarios. The AZT's task was, among other things, to evaluate the safety-related effects of automated parking functions. For this purpose, existing accident databases and the Allianz claims contained therein for several years were evaluated to obtain as comprehensive a picture as possible of the parking accidents recorded. Based on the knowledge gained from this, an assessment of the potential impact of future automated parking functions could be given.


    For more information: L3Pilot press release



     E-cars are becoming increasingly networked and digital. They are almost rolling computers. They offer potential attack surfaces for hackers. Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser, the managing director of AZT Automotive GmbH, explains in the following Generation E podcast from RND how we can protect ourselves against attacks and what responsibility the manufacturers of e-cars have.


    With our article about the 90s we continue the AZT series "Know-how with history". In 1993 Prof. Dr. Dieter Anselm becomes the managing director of the AZT.

    Prof. Dr. Dieter Anselm at the Allianz Security Award Genius, 2007


    Anselm notes the most important challenge and success of his work: "The AZT was already known for its work. Now it was to be developed even more strongly as a point of contact in specialist circles both inside and outside the Allianz. It was also important to make the results of our work known beyond Germany's borders. This was achieved by extending the training of Allianz experts to a European level - in parallel with the internationalization of the Allianz. “


    Until 1990, one of the central tasks of the AZT was the further education of the more than 500 Allianz experts from the Federal Republic of Germany and Austria. With the takeover of the former State Insurance of the GDR and the foundation of the Deutsche Versicherungs-AG (DVAG), the training work and the target group changed fundamentally: For a short time, the AZT was for 1100 employees of the technical sales force - more than twice as many as before 1990.


    In cooperation with the Allianz department responsible for Eastern Europe, the development of Allianz's business in various Eastern European countries began in the 1990s. International training was also established at the same time. 

    Training situation from the 90s at the AZT (Source: AZT)


    In the 1990s, many issues in security research were broadened.  For example, the experts at the AZT investigated the effects of airbags on spectacle wearers and smokers in the event of an impact, and they also developed an effective dog restraint system.


    1995 - the effects of a crash with airbag deployment on spectacle wearers and smokers are simulated during the crash test (source: AZT)


    The vehicle crashes already described in the last article also continued. Fittingly for the German reunification, there was also a crash with a Trabant at the AZT in the early 90s.

    The behaviour of the legendary Trabi in a crash is tested at the AZT (Source: AZT)


    Innovations in safety technology in the 1990s included the introduction of the electronic immobilizer. After the fall of the wall, the damage increased in of comprehensive insurance due to a huge increase in motor vehicle thefts. The vehicles were being moved to Eastern Europe and the Middle East by internationally organised gangs of thieves on an unprecedented scale. In order to be able to avoid above-average premium increases, the AZT developed a requirements profile for effective systems and immediately demanded solutions for practical anti-theft protection from the automotive industry. The result was the legal introduction of the electronic immobilizer for newly registered passenger cars according to standards defined by the AZT. The industry quickly implemented this idea, and the success was already evident in the mid-1990s with a sharp drop in the number of thefts.


    The reference to the definition of the electronic immobilizer by the AZT was even noted in the vehicle documents for a long time.

    Electronic immobilizer (Source: AZT)

    Example of vehicle registration document (Source: AZT)

    As already described in our AZT article on the 1970s, a vehicle- and manufacturer-independent calculation system for the exact determination of painting costs was developed at the Allianz Center for Technology. Since its development, the calculation system, based on AZT studies, has continuously incorporated new tools, new materials and new repair methods. Since 1990, the system has been used in more than 40 countries and has even become the market standard in some cases.


    AZT paint calculation system (Source: AZT)

    In our next and last AZT article from the year 2000, we report, among other things, on the further development in the field of crash standards.


    The 9th Allianz Motor Day, which this year for the first time took place as a combination of on-site event at the AZT and online streaming, was dedicated to other current topics from the automotive sector in addition to the main topic "Automated driving becomes reality".

    In the first part of the Motor Day, which was mainly aimed at the audience in Germany, Frank Sommerfeld (CEO Allianz Versicherungs-AG and Member of the Board of Management of Allianz Deutschland AG) and James Wallner (CEO ADAC Autoversicherung AG and Member of the Board of Management of ADAC Versicherung AG) first presented innovations in motor insurance for electric vehicles in Germany. Carsten Reinkemeyer (Head of Vehicle Technology & Safety Research at the AZT) presented the latest AZT research results on the claims experience with electric vehicles. Karsten Göwecke (Ständiger Vertreter des Landesbranddirektors, Berliner Feuerwehr) supplemented the substantive part on fire damage and brought in the perspective of the fire department on this topic.


    Frank Sommerfeld, CEO Allianz Versicherungs-AG and Member of the Board of Management of Allianz Deutschland AG, talking to James Wallner, CEO ADAC Autoversicherung AG and Member of the Board of Management of ADAC Versicherung AG 

    Carsten Reinkemeyer, Head of Vehicle Technology & Safety Research at the AZT, presents the latest AZT research results on damage to electric vehicles

    From left to right: Carsten Reinkemeyer (AZT), Fero Andersen (moderator), Karsten Göwecke (Ständiger Vertreter des Landesbranddirektors, Berliner Feuerwehr)

    The next part of the agenda was a very special one for the AZT: The 50th anniversary of the AZT was officially honored in front of the audience. Jochen Haug (Chief Claims Officer and Member of the Board of Management of Allianz Versicherungs-AG) and Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser (Managing Director Allianz Center for Technology) summarized the importance of the AZT in the past decades for Allianz, the industry and society and presented an outlook on the current and future topic portfolio of the AZT.


    Jochen Haug, Chief Claims Officer and Member of the Board of Management of Allianz Versicherungs-AG, congratulates Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser, Managing Director AZT, on the company's 50th anniversary

    Key note speech by Allianz Deutschland CEO Dr. Klaus-Peter Röhler

    After a short break, Fero Andersen, the moderator of the event, kicked off the second international part of the event. After a key note speech by Dr. Klaus-Peter Röhler (CEO Allianz Deutschland AG and Member of the Board of Allianz SE), experts from the automotive industry, science and research as well as members of the Allianz Board of Management discussed the main topic of the event "Automated driving becomes reality". The discussion was broadcast throughout Europe and was held in English.


    Panel discussion on the topic of "Automated driving becomes reality"


    After the panel discussion the guests had the opportunity to have a look at the exhibition in the outdoor area of the AZT and to inform themselves about various topics. At this point, we would like to express our special thanks to our exhibitors, who made a significant contribution to ensuring that the topics of the Motor Day could be experienced on site.


    Exhibition on e-mobility at Allianz Motor Day


    As part of the event, Allianz published its positions on the various topics, which are summarized below:

    Insuring electric cars correctly

    - Batteries insured at replacement value - no "new for old" deduction 

    - Optimized coverage concept already included in car insurance Komfort

    - Incorrect operation of charging stations covered by comprehensive insurance

    Insuring electric cars correctly

    Electric cars more expensive to repair than combustion cars  

    - Repair specifications make accident repairs more expensive

    - Expensive follow-up costs after accidents and fires

    -  Type class classification for electric cars works

    50 years of automotive research at the AZT

    - Allianz research institute celebrates its 50th anniversary

    - AZT stands for competence in vehicle technology and safety research

    - Current research focus is assisted and automated driving

    Making Europe fit for autonomous driving

    - Allianz will insure autonomous vehicles and technical supervision

    - Sensor data is essential for clarifying causes of accidents involving autonomous vehicles

    - Europe-wide data trustee should facilitate data exchange and accident investigation

    - In automated vehicles, the vehicle owner should also be insured in the event of an accident caused by the vehicle


    All documents and press information on the Allianz Motor Day can be found on the event page

  • Example of a vehicle with repaired fender and refinish painting with color matching of the adjacent component in the same level (driver's door). 


    At the end of March 2021, the German Commission for Paint and Bodywork Repair passed and subsequently published the document on the significance of the delivery condition from bodywork to paint in German and English as well as a fundamentally revised paint guideline. Afterwards, the AZT repeatedly received requests for an English edition of the paint guideline.

    In order to meet the interest and to support the international claims and repair market, AZT has therefore now translated the paint guideline based on the German version. After correction loops with the Working Group on Automotive Refinish Coatings of the Association of the German Paint and Printing Ink Industry (VdL) and the German Federal Association for Color Design & Protection of Structure (Bundesverband Farbe Gestaltung Bautenschutz) with its Nationwide Expert Group Vehicle Painting (Bundesfachgruppe Fahrzeuglackierer – BFL), the English version of the paint guideline can now be made available to all interested parties. At the same time, all members of the German Commission for Paint and Bodywork Repair will also receive the English document for further use.

    Both the German and English versions of the paint guideline, as well as all other documents of the German Commission for Paint and Bodywork Repair, can be downloaded free of charge from the download area (see  →  „Beschlüsse der Deutschen Kommission für Lack und Karosserieinstandsetzung“). In addition, the English versions are also available at  →  “Resolutions of the German Commission for Paint and Bodywork Repair”.


    Dear classic car friends,

    In April we reported here about the leaks and fuel loss on our BMW E21. The matter has been repaired and we will tell you more about the story: 


    The removed tank was marked with extensive rusting. In the edge areas, where the upper and lower tank halves are welded together, clear corrosion was visible between the sheet metal layers.


    In our last report we already mentioned that a new spare part was not available. We therefore decided to have the tank professionally repaired.

    We have needed to sandblaste the tank in order to determine the complete extent of the damage. This blasting process is gentle on the rust but the steel sheet of the tank remains unchanged. Before sandblasting, however, the glued-on insulation mats had to be removed, as the blasting material would have bounced off them to no avail.

    After sandblasting the tank was in a good condition. What you see in this photo is bare, undamaged sheet metal.



    However, the corroded suspensions of the tank on the front side in the direction of travel were only rudimentary:


    Welding the plate would be risky as the original weld seam could become leaky due to the additional heat input.

    We therefore decided to make new sheet metal mountings and fix them in place using modern adhesive technology.



    After the adhesive had cured, the tank could be taken to the paint shop and painted:



    Primed and sanded. The sealing of the two tank halves against penetrating moisture, as well as the sealed repair area, are shown here:



    The result is convincing. The work was worth it.


    You can see that even a rather unnoticed component, such as the fuel tank, can play a major role in the preservation of an old vehicle, and that its restoration requires a certain amount of effort in any case. However, the result usually compensates for all the previous efforts.

    Actually the tank is now too good to hide under the car. You won't see much of it anymore, but the assurance of no more leaks is also worth a lot.



    More on the topic:

    Article about the purchase of the BMW 318, year of construction 1975

    Article about fuel loss at BMW 318 - A little petrol story



    On the occasion of the AZT's 50th anniversary, we thought about how to combine long-term expertise and future-oriented research in the automotive field, as well as our international way of working. 

    One result of this is our new, graphically implemented claim "50 Years Research - Driving Tomorrow“ which we will use in the future.


    In a short movie Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser, Managing Director of AZT Automotive GmbH, presents the most important areas of work of the AZT over the past 5 decades as well as for the future. 

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    Practical tests according to defined standards on various safety topics have always been a central element of the AZT's work. The following trailer gives an impressive overview.


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  • Photo: Rear bumper cover painted in Volkswagen Chili Red (LS3M) using different paint manufacturers on driver’s side (left half of the picture) and passenger’s side (right half of the picture) with clearly recognizable color shade differences when using the standard mixing formulas.


    More and more vehicles are being equipped with sensors for driver assistance systems, and this is having an increasing impact on the repair of vehicles that have been involved in accidents. Since manufacturers' repair instructions sometimes contain very precise specifications for painting, especially for painted plastic parts, repair shops and paint shops are facing new challenges. In order to be able to document their own working methods in the event of problems arising during sensor calibration and in the event of enquiries, it is necessary, for example, to measure the applied paint layer thicknesses non-destructively. The AZT has carried out extensive studies on this.

    Radar sensors that are required for the functionality of driver assistance systems such as lane change warnings or lane change assistants as well as parking or intersection assistants, are usually installed in areas that are per se at risk of collision behind the bumper trim. Depending on the vehicle manufacturer, the relevant specifications and approvals for the repair and painting of bumper covers must be observed in the event of repairs. This may also include the permissible paint thickness.

    Figure 1: Volkswagen Passat Variant (model code: 3C, MJ 2015) with partially transparent rear bumper cover and marking of the passenger’s side radar sensor mounted on the rear panel for monitoring the rear traffic area.


    The aim of every repair is to achieve the best result from both an ecological and an economic point of view. Every bumper cover that is unnecessarily renewed from a technical point of view and settled by an insurance company has a negative effect on the type classification due to the associated significantly higher damage costs compared to repair. Ultimately, therefore, the customer always pays the bill, due to rising insurance premiums, if efficient repair options are not available or are not applied.

    The AZT therefore carried out numerous series of experiments to calibrate the rear radar sensors and measure the paint layer thickness on various rear bumper covers. Original spare parts were painted at the AZT, the rear radar sensors were calibrated several times and the paint film thickness was measured or determined using various methods. On the one hand, ultrasonic measurements were carried out on the plastic part itself and on samples cut from it, and conventional thickness measurements were carried out on painted color sample sheets using magnetic induction. The samples taken from the bumper covers were also analyzed under the microscope using polished cross-sections, and these results were used as a reference in the overall evaluation.

    The series of tests on radar calibration focused on the painting itself; any repair procedures were not considered. This means that in each case original spare parts were painted by a skilled painting craftsman and paint technician at AZT. This therefore corresponds to a new part painting. Furthermore, additional surface painting was applied in some cases. In addition to the original exterior color of the available Volkswagen Passat, other up-to-date colors of the Volkswagen Group were selected as color tones. The aim was to cover colors that, according to the literature, are critical and less critical for radar penetration, as well as paints with various effect pigments and 2- and 3-layer paints. Furthermore, all bumper covers and corresponding color sample sheets were painted with two different refinishing paint systems from different paint manufacturers, each with the standard mixing formula (driver's side: paint manufacturer A; passenger's side: paint manufacturer B). The clear focus was on analyzing the paint layer thickness in combination with different paint colors, which is why the final coating with clear coat was uniformly applied with a 2K clear coat, since this is technologically comparable for both refinishing paint systems used and the influencing factors could therefore be reduced.

    In conclusion, it can be stated that the ultrasonic layer thickness measurement principle on plastic is currently not an unrestrictedly resilient and reliable measurement method in the automotive sector and the everyday workshop routine. In particular, the interpretation of the measurement result is challenging on a complete bumper cover, which can deform when the corresponding compressive force is applied for the ultrasonic measurement. On a buckling-resistant stiff sample, on the other hand, the ultrasonic measurement principle works quite reliably, but then contradicts a non-destructive measurement method. In addition, the selected measuring mode in combination with the respective software version of the ultrasonic measuring device can make a significant difference in the result of the paint layer thickness output. Sometimes more precise results can be achieved with a color sample sheet painted at a suitable location and the conventional coating thickness measurement carried out on it.

    In order to be able to evaluate the quality of the measurement results from ultrasonic measurement and the paint layer thickness measurement on metallic substrates using magnetic induction or the eddy current measuring principle, polished cross-sections from samples of the painted bumper covers were evaluated under a scanning electron microscope and the real paint layer thicknesses were determined. It was shown that the deviation of the measurement results on the paint sample sheets from the true paint film layer thickness is minimal and therefore appropriate conclusions can be drawn in everyday's workshop routine, provided that the paint sample sheets were painted in a suitable manner together with the respective components.

    A detailed compilation of the scope of the test, the chosen approach and relevant results was recently published in the April 2021 issue of the journal "Verkehrsunfall und Fahrzeugtechnik".

    The polished cross-sections taken in the series of tests were mainly used to determine the real coating layer thickness in order to be able to evaluate the various non-destructive measurement methods for paint layer thickness. In addition, the polished cross-sections were used to illuminate further interesting aspects. Figure 2 shows the polished cross-section of a bumper cover painted in Volkswagen Pyrit Silver, on which the very homogeneous distribution of the effect pigments can be seen combined with their uniform orientation. The silver effect pigments are all aligned approximately parallel and bonded in the base coat. This results in a uniform and thin base coat layer thickness, which nevertheless ensures a covering coating. In addition, the polished cross-sections provide an indication of the repeatability of paintwork. An experienced paint specialist who is familiar with the refinishing system used and knows the interactions between the refinishing system and the paint booth as well as its control system can repeat the individual layers of a paintwork with a high degree of accuracy, even with an appropriate offset in time. Figure 3 shows the polished cross-section of a bumper cover that has been painted three times with Volkswagen Deep Black. After the new part painting (base coat & 2K clear coat on primed delivered spare part) and corresponding examinations, a first surface painting with base coat and 2K clear coat followed with corresponding preparation of the painted surface by using fine sanding with sanding pad / fleece. Finally, a second surface coating was applied. All three black base coat layers are almost identical in thickness at 9 – 10 μm. Due to the fine sanding of the existing 2K clear coat surfaces before the new base coat was applied, the first two clear coat layers were each minimally removed and, at 47 μm and 45 μm, are just under a third thinner than the final 2K clear coat layer at 64 μm. It can also be guessed that the surface roughness is increased by sanding, but that the base coat reliably compensates for this and ensures an even surface coating.


    Figure 2: Microscope Effect. Polished cross-section of a sample taken from the bumper cover painted in Volkswagen Pyrit Silver showing numerous approximately parallel aligned and evenly distributed effect pigments.


    Figure 3: Microscope 3. Polished cross-section of a sample taken from the bumper cover painted in Volkswagen Deep Black with one new part painting and two surface paintings.


    Dear classic car friends,


    We have some news about our BMW 318.

    We deliberately bought this car in good condition to avoid having to deal with further restoration work, besides the Mercedes.


    Unfortunately, even supposedly very good classic cars are not safe from (bad) surprises:


    Originally, we wanted to fill up the BMW briefly on a Friday afternoon before the weekend. Back at the AZT workshop, we noticed a strong smell of gasoline and a small pool of gasoline formed under the BMW. On the lifting platform we have checked the car.

    The source of the gasoline loss was quickly identified, it dripped down the fuel tank. On this vehicle the tank is still made of sheet steel, so we suspected something bad.


    Fuel smell and loss is not uncommon with this model, it is reported more often of such defects in the BMW E21. The cause is often leaky, porous fuel lines, which are installed on the top of the tank, which is not visible from below. A "tip giver" has even recommended to simply not fill up the tank, otherwise leave everything as it is. This was not an option for us as we wanted to get to the bottom of it. After removing the rear seat and removing the corresponding assembly cover, we could already locate a leak:


    Here, the ventilation line is obviously torn, but the other visible hoses no longer make a good impression either.

    To finally get to the bottom of the leak, the fuel tank was completely emptied with a special tank pump, collected and then the tank was removed.


    The traces of the leaking gasoline are very visible here. The disconnected hose at the bottom right is already a new part leading to the fuel tank nozzle. The old hose mounted there presented itself to us in a very porous condition:


    So we were lucky, the cause of the fuel loss was not the tank, which only with luck would still be available as a spare part but "only" a few hoses and lines. We were able to replace these quite quickly and the tank is now tight again.


    Because we could nevertheless determine some large and a few stronger punctual rust spots on the removed tank, we decided to have the tank sandblasted in order to weld it afterwards if necessary and then to paint it again...


    Conclusion: Life with a classic car is never boring ;-)


    We will keep you updated



    More on the topic:

    Article about the purchase of the BMW 318, year of construction 1975

    Article about the purchase of the Mercedes 240D, year of construction 1981



    In Germany, the Personal Light Electric Vehicles Act, effective June, 2019, enables to operate e-scooters (20 km/h limit) on public roads. While a full year federal accident report is waiting for giving us figures and details, on what the accident characteristics may be, the Allianz Center for Technology run a pilot, screening all 2020 police road traffic control and enforcement measurements, as given by police press releases.


    The article will be published in the journal Verkehrsunfall und Fahrzeugtechnik 03/2021. 


    In the meantime, the German Federal Statistical Office has published figures. The AZT has commented on the latest official data.


    Jörg Kubitzki, Road Safety Expert, from the Allianz Center for Technology states: „I am not convinced of the German Federal Statistic Bureau’s comparison of e-scooter accident figures to bicycle figures, as there are quite highly different mileage exposures between them. It is more wise to compare e-scooters with light motorized cycles classes, since both are under mandatory insurance coverage here. In here, 386 severely injured scooter-riders make 14 percentages of all, severely injured scooter-riders and light motorized cycle-riders (386 plus 2311). As to all death: 9 percentages, and as to all casualties (fatalities plus severely- plus slightly injureds): 16 percentages.”


    Furthermore, Jörg Kubitzki comments: „The high portion of single accident cases in e-scooter, found by the German Federal Statistic Bureau, is in line with our Allianz Zentrum für Technik (AZT) prognosis, we calculated here. This are often on road falls, so we urgently advise every e-scooter driver to wear helmet, when driving e-scooter. With our AZT analyses, beside alcohol also drug influenced driving plays a major role in e-scooter use in general, especially in young people.”

  • Old picture of the AZT building in 1971


    This year will be a special one for the AZT: In 1971, Professor Max Danner founded the Institute of Automotive Technology - today's AZT Automotive GmbH - under the umbrella of the already existing Allianz Center for Technology. Our company can look back on a history that now spans 50 years and we are celebrating our anniversary this year.

    Max Danner in the auditorium of the AZT, 1971


    On the occasion of our anniversary year, we will report on the milestones of the last five decades spread over the year.


    The first version of the crash track, 1971

    Reverse forming in the AZT garage in 1972

    Crash track reconstruction, 1982

    Crash test in the AZT, 1996

    Since 2010 the AZT deals increasingly with questions from the areas of driver assistance systems, automated driving and the IT security of vehicles.


    The crash test season started with a premiere in form of the Aiways U5 vehicle model. Aiways is the first Chinese manufacturer to undergo an initial classification procedure in Germany for type class determination on the basis of the RCAR crash tests. Overall, the focus of vehicle crashes was even more on electrically powered vehicles than in the previous year.


    Source: AZT, crash test with an Opel Corsa-e at the AZT .


    In the field of consulting and crash tests, the AZT has positioned itself very successfully, especially with a number of new market participants. The orders will continue in the coming year as well as the support of a number of units of the Allianz.

    With regard to low speed crash performance, the AZT experts offer consulting as well as test services up to the hosting of presentations for initial classification. A particular challenge in 2020 has occurred by the fact that no face-to-face events have been possible. However, it was possible to establish a format that allowed the client to "accompany" the vehicles during the tests without being physically present and to subsequently perform damage assessment on the test vehicles.

    Since the introduction of automated emergency braking (AEB) systems the non-destructive testing of such systems has a great impact. These systems, initially developed for the front end, are now established on the market and help to reduce the frequency of accidents. The effects and optimization potentials for assistance systems have also been further investigated in 2020 by the accident research department of the AZT with bachelor's and master's theses based on real damage cases.

    One of the findings from such studies is that insurers now make a large - and increasing - proportion of their comprehensive and motor liability payments for damage that occurs during parking and maneuvering. Besides the studies the AZT therefore continued to work actively in the international RCAR working group P-Safe on the further development of test standards for new emergency braking systems that also detect obstacles to the side or rear and brake automatically. Such tests require a high level of metrological effort and are therefore very complex.


    Source: AZT, outdoor test reverse driving R-AEB.


    In the field of training, public relations and administration, this year 2020 was all about digitalization.

    The training program was completely converted to online training at very short notice due to corona and we succeeded in implementing 41 training topics spread over 49 training days, reaching over 400 participants. Also the international AZT event with a long tradition, the "AZT Summit" could be held virtually in a shorter version and the international know-how exchange was guaranteed also in the corona year.

    The administrative tasks of the AZT were restructured and also in this area various processes were digitalized. Above all, the corona-related additional requirements were handled in the best possible way.

    The annual highlight of public relations, the Allianz Motor Day, also took place virtually this year and for the first time internationally as the "Allianz Motor Day" in English.


    Source: AZT, Allianz Motor Day „Cyber Risks in the Connected Car Eco System“. From left to the right: Prof. Rudolf Hackenberg (OTH Regensburg Department of Computer Science and Mathematics), Fero Andersen (moderator), Hans Adlkofer (Infineon Technologies AG), Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser (managing director AZT)


    In 2020 a medium-term project around classic cars started at the AZT. Here we are dealing in detail with two cars from the 1970s. All aspects of these vehicles will be considered, one vehicle will remain in its original condition, the other will be professionally restored. All this is conveyed to Allianz colleagues in the course of training sessions held by the claims field service.


    Source: AZT, as part of the classic car project the BMW 318 (left) and the Mercedes 240D are being restored.


    In the area of repair technology and painting, various projects were worked on and also widely communicated in the industry. These include, among others, a resolution on the topic of driver assistance systems in vehicle repair, clarifications and updates on the AZT paint calculation system, and an investigation of corona-related additional expenses in vehicle disinfection together with the ZKF and IFL.



    The AZT Paint Calculation System defines a wide range of paint stages for new plastic parts. These stages should be selected appropriately, especially based on the respective delivery condition, in order to enable correct calculation of the paint work to be carried out. In addition, the paint system used by the paint specialist in combination with the color shade to be painted may also affect the correct paint stage. As this has repeatedly led to queries in the past, AZT has prepared a detailed overview of the various plastic paint levels in combination with the delivery condition and the painting work to be carried out.

    This is intended to provide all users of the AZT Paint Calculation System with assistance going beyond the system description in order to avoid different understandings between the parties involved (experts & repair shops, insurance companies & experts, insurance companies & repair shops, ...). Thus, all parties involved in the damage process receive a basis for the settlement of bills according to the AZT Paint Calculation, which reduces queries, discussions and delays.

    The supplementary document to the system description of the AZT Paint Calculation can be found in the download area of the AZT homepage under "Paint" or can be accessed directly here.

  • Precisely measured and ready for the rear impact: the BioRid-II Dummy


    For several decades, experts at the AZT have been investigating the protection potential of vehicle seats in rear-end collisions and researching how this protection potential can be further improved. In 2004 the validation of a dummy with a biofunctional spinal column specially developed for rear-end collisions was completed in cooperation with an international working group. Since 2008 the "BioRid-II" dummy has also been established in consumer protection tests.


    The AZT is the only institute in the world that not only uses this dummy in isolation from the vehicle on a seat test component crash facility but also examines the overall system of vehicle and seat with the BioRid-II dummy on the driver's seat.

    In almost every crash according to the RCAR standard (structure and bumper rear), but also in vehicle-vehicle collision tests, the vehicle and seat must prove that they would provide good protection for the occupants in accordance with the EURO NCAP consumer protection criteria. In this way, it can be continuously checked whether and to what extent the continuously developed vehicle structural elements have an effect on the occupant load in rear-end collisions.


    In 2020 the AZT published an article in the trade journal "VKU - Verkehrsunfall und Fahrzeugtechnik" (VKU - Traffic Accident and Vehicle Technology), which shows that the dummy measurement values of the neck shear and neck shear forces, as well as those of the differential acceleration between the upper body and the head in a rear-end collision, have decreased significantly over the years.

    With the adaptation of the Euro NCAP consumer protection criteria in January 2020, the further increase in the protection potential of the seats will be pushed forward so that high acceleration peaks of the vehicle body in a rear-end collision are transmitted to the occupants as flattened as possible and the occupant load is further reduced for the same accident intensity.


    The complete article was published in the VKU, issue 5/2020 and is available for registered users (in German language only, part 1 and part 2).


  • Source: AZT

    Modern vehicles are computer networks on wheels. Million lines of software code, control units and sensor technology enable new mobility concepts, extra comfort and increased driving safety. They are paving the way to automated driving. However, computer networks are constant targets of cyber-attacks and such attacks on vehicles can not only cause financial damage, but also endanger lives.

    Hacker attacks on connected ecosystems are anything but an unrealistic possibility. “Alongside the logistics and energy sector, connected cars may become one of the main targets of IT crime,” said Klaus-Peter Röhler, a member of the Management Board of Allianz SE and CEO of Allianz Deutschland AG.

    Such risk scenarios and their implications for insurance were discussed by an expert panel consisting of Hans Adlkofer (Vice President Automotive Systems, Infineon Technologies AG), Rico Förster (Head of Commercial Motor, Global P&C, Allianz SE), Prof. Dr. Rudolf Hackenberg (Technical computer science and information security, Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule Regensburg), Jochen Haug (Chief Claims Officer and Member of the Board of Management of Allianz Versicherungs-AG), Prof. Dr. Christoph Krauß (Cyber-Physical Systems and Automotive Security, The Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Information Technology SIT), Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser (Managing Director Allianz Center for Technology) and Conrad Meyer (Digital Forensics, Central Office for Information Technology in the Security Sector, ZITiS)

    Due to the current situation around Covid-19, the Allianz Motor Day was held for the first time as a Europe-wide digital press event and the expert panel was broadcasted via online stream. The audience consisting of international press and industry representatives followed the event digitally and there was the possibility to ask questions to the panelists via online form.

    A summary of the event and accompanying material (including speeches of the Allianz board members and press releases on the topic) can be accessed via the following link:

    In the context of the event Allianz also published its positions on IT security in connected vehicles, which are summarized here

    • To confront cyberchallenges effectively, Allianz is calling for a European solution for a multi-industry Automotive Security Information Center. The center’s primary purpose would be to ensure by pooling of competencies that the mobility ecosystem is able to prepare for, and respond to, security threats, vulnerabilities and incidents, so that everyone involved can best manage their business risks and the risks to customers and third parties. 
    • Vehicle insurance will cover the consequences of accidents after hacker attacks. But if a vehicle malfunctions and an accident results, the car owner has a right to know whether that was the result of a hacker attack. In addition to the measures called for at the 7th Allianz Motor Day for using vehicle data to investigate accidents in connected and smart cars, future cyberattacks should also be recorded by an independent data trustee. Such records could be kept in compliance with the data protection laws without transmitting personal information. Recording cyberattacks could also serve to develop protective mechanism and avert future damage.
    • Vehicle manufacturers are responsible for preventing hacker attacks on their digital platforms that communicate with the vehicle. It’s up to the vehicle manufacturers to ensure that vehicles, and especially their automated systems, work without disruption, and to cover the costs of remedying defects. But Allianz will provide benefits for the consequences of accidents, and also for mere disruptions of function in the event of attacks on an individual vehicle

    A summary of the event is shown in the following film:

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    The Virtual Vehicle Key was one topic of the Motor Day and is shown in the following short film:

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    Expert panel in compliance with the current Corona restrictions (left to right) Prof. Dr. Rudi Hackenberg (OTH Regensburg), online participant  Prof. Dr. Christoph Krauss (Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Information Technology SIT), Fero Andersen (moderator of the event), Hans Adlkofer (Infineon) and Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser (Allianz Center for Technology)

    Expert panel in compliance with the current Corona restrictions (left to right) Prof. Dr. Rudi Hackenberg (OTH Regensburg), online participant  Prof. Dr. Christoph Krauss (Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Information Technology SIT), Fero Andersen (moderator of the event), Hans Adlkofer (Infineon) and Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser (Allianz Center for Technology)

    Conrad Meyer (ZITiS) and online participant  Prof. Dr. Christoph Krauss (Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Information Technology SIT) answer the moderator´s questions regarding cyber risks and forensic methods

    Conrad Meyer (ZITiS) and online participant  Prof. Dr. Christoph Krauss (Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Information Technology SIT) answer the moderator´s questions regarding cyber risks and forensic methods

    Rico Förster (Head of Commercial Motor, Allianz SE) and Jochen Haug (Chief Claims Officer and Member of the Board of Management of Allianz Versicherungs-AG)were broadcasted from a second stage

    Rico Förster (Head of Commercial Motor, Allianz SE) and Jochen Haug (Chief Claims Officer and Member of the Board of Management of Allianz Versicherungs-AG)were broadcasted from a second stage

    Dr. Klaus-Peter Röhler (CEO Allianz Deutschland AG and Member of the Board of Management of Allianz SE) answers the questions of the journalists

    Dr. Klaus-Peter Röhler (CEO Allianz Deutschland AG and Member of the Board of Management of Allianz SE) answers the questions of the journalists

  • Source: AGCS

    One mobility trend is the increasing electrification and the new forms of mobility resulting from it. Among other things the spread of electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The drivers for this include consumer demand and current political efforts to combat climate change.

    In addition to the opportunities offered by electromobility, new challenges are also emerging for manufacturers, suppliers and insurers. Allianz's industrial insurer, AGCS, has addressed these issues in a comprehensive report that provides a general overview of the current market situation in the field of e-mobility and the current assessment of the resulting risks, especially for manufacturers and insurance companies.

    The AZT has been working on the subject of electric vehicles, their technical specifications and special features as well as their crash behaviour for many years. Some of the AZT's findings have therefore been incorporated into the AGCS report. The complete report in English can be downloaded here.

  • The regular exchange with users of the AZT paint calculation system has shown several times that there is potential for optimisation in the use of the AZT paint calculation system despite the detailed and freely accessible system description.

    The AZT team was repeatedly approached about identical aspects, particularly in the context of paint time and material studies. In order to minimize potential false interpretation and the resulting inconsistencies the forced pause in time and material studies caused by the corona pandemic has now been intensively used to comprehensively revise the system description in recent weeks, making it more precise in numerous places and supplementing it with case studies.


    As usual the updated system description is available to download for free in German and English.


    All the additions and clarifications that have now been incorporated will certainly not be the last changes to the system description of the AZT paint calculation.

    With the completion and evaluation of the time and material studies, the system description will also be updated again, and ideas for user-friendly adjustments are already available. A contribution describing the procedure for the time and material studies can be downloaded here (in German language only).


  • "Every classic car is much more than just an automobile. It's a piece of art that happens to drive (Ing. Richard Kaan).“


    Which heart of an automobile fan doesn't beat faster when a well-preserved classic car with an interesting history is standing right in front of him? And it is not only among classic car enthusiasts that these vehicles cause enthusiasm. Many people who are not otherwise very much involved in the subject also like old cars that are already visually striking and arouse childhood memories and other emotions.


    The AZT, with its almost 50-year history, has examined various vehicles in various research projects over the past decades which in the meantime have long been classified as classic cars. A classic car is a car that was first registered for traffic at least 30 years ago.


    However these vehicles are not only art objects or collector's items, so-called "garage gold". Even if they are rather rare in the overall vehicle market there is nevertheless a not inconsiderable number of classic cars. Today, according to figures from the German Kraftfahrtbundesamt, there are about 750,000 cars on our roads in Germany that are over 30 years old and which are occasionally involved in accidents, so that they also play a role in the damage caused. The AZT has already addressed this issue in an earlier evaluation of claims


    Due to the rarity of these vehicles and their special features very specific challenges arise for the experts who assess damage of a classic car. Which spare parts are available on the market? What is the right repair method to preserve the substance of the vehicle as much as possible? What is the overall value of the vehicle to be assessed? When assessing the value of the vehicle, other factors play a role than in the case of modern passenger cars. For example, the history of the vehicle must also be taken into account. These are only a few questions to which the expert should have answers ready in individual cases.


    General information and special training on the subject of classic cars are therefore an important part of the training of experts. AZT´s experts  are starting a longer-term project to the subject of classic cars and will prepare 2 vehicles for training purposes over the next months. Various disciplines of automotive engineering will be involved in this project and will work together. From body repair and painting to electronics and vehicle mechanics. In addition, these vehicles, which have been selected according to defined criteria, will be used to graphically illustrate developments in automotive technology over the past decades.


    A first vehicle has already been bought for this purpose, a mint-green BMW E21 type 318. The E21 series was the first BMW 3 series and was built from 1975 to 1983.

    Our vehicle is from the production year 1975 and has a 4-cylinder gasoline engine with 72KW/ 98hp. The BMW was in first ownership until 2006. We were able to purchase the vehicle from the third owner who had held it since 2013.

    Volker Wulle, head of the classic car project at AZT, reports on the plans with the vehicle in the near future:

    "First of all we will take care of the technical aspects of the vehicle. There are oil leaks in the engine and transmission, the carburettor has to be reset and the clutch will probably need to be replaced. The BMW will be registered and will be moved once in a while to avoid damage to the car and to check repairs. In order to be able to demonstrate the excellent condition of this vehicle at our expert training courses, we plan to have the underbody blasted with dry ice and then professionally preserve the result. Otherwise, the BMW will remain as far as possible as it now presents itself. The modified chassis with the two-tone aluminum rims from BBS is absolutely contemporary and we believe that such modifications are worth preserving just as much as absolute original conditions. The body and the interior of the vehicle present themself in the unrestored original condition which we would like to preserve as far as possible".


    For further training purposes for our motor experts, the purchase of a second vehicle is planned, a Mercedes of the series W123. Extensive repair work on the bodywork of this vehicle will be carried out.


    We will report on the further progress of the project and the further history of our classic cars on our website at regular intervals in the upcoming period.


    It's worth taking a look!

    Almost completely preserved engine compartment details

    Historical sticker of the ADAC

    Contemporary rim from the company BBS

    Classic compact rear light with original badging


    More on the topic:

    Article about the purchase of the Mercedes 240D, year of construction 1981

    Article about fuel loss at BMW 318 - A little petrol story


  • One of the test candidates: Dog dummy waiting for his cue

    As a matter of fact, dogs are regarded as cargo in the sense of the German road traffic regulations and must be secured during the journey. The market offers various systems for this purpose and the Allianz Center for Technology AZT has tested samples for their practical suitability and crash safety using dog dummies. In most cases, the different securing systems are more uncomfortable for the dog owner in terms of handling than for the dog itself.

    A safety system not only helps the dog to find a safe and comfortable position in the vehicle during normal driving manoeuvres, but also during emergency braking or evasive manoeuvres. Thus most dogs get used to it quickly to stay more relaxed during the journey. Hence the driver is also less distracted by the dog. An unsecured dog, however, can move freely in the vehicle, cannot find a secure foothold, can obstruct the driver's view and distract him dangerously.

    Finally, in the event of an accident, an unsecured dog is not only considerably endangered itself, it also precipitates a serious risk of injury for the occupants due to its mass and the enormous physical forces. After an accident, an unsecured dog in a frightened, possibly injured state, can endanger helpers and other road users. And also a dog trying to protect the owner can become a danger for helpers and car passengers.

    The crash tests performed by AZT have impressively shown that dogs must be secured according to their size and weight. Dog owners should consider the following references:

    • The securing system (whether belt, harness or box) must bear a test certificate for crash safety according to ECE R17.

    • The securing system must be designed for the weight and size of the dog.

    • Read and understand the manufacturer's instructions on the safety system and how to use it appropriately.

    • The safest place for a dog is in a lashed and firmly closed dog transport box in the cargo area.

    • The box must be secured with suitable lashing straps and must not load the backrest of the rear seat bench during normal operation.

    • The seat belts of unoccupied rear seats can be additionally fastened in order to absorb loads on the backrest in the event of an accident.

    • Only smaller dogs up to a maximum mass of 7 kg can be buckled up on the rear seat with  special belt and harness systems, because harnesses generally provide too much freedom of movement and can be harmful for the dog due to an excessive jerk when tightened in an accident.

    • For dogs up to medium weight and size there are crash-proof transport boxes for the rear seats available. These boxes can also be secured with additional straps or even better using Isofix mounts.

    • Drive carefully and with foresight.

    Taking these AZT tips into account, your dog will hopefully be happy to accompany you in the vehicle as long and as safe as possible.

    The AZT wishes you and your pet a safe journey!

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  • UNECE WP.29 faces significant challenges in formulating UN regulations for the approval, homologation and operation of automated and autonomous vehicles. Out of 13 important safety issues that need to be regulated in detail, one main topic is the recording of accident and incident data to clarify accidents involving automated vehicles in mixed traffic. In addition the basis for the clarification of traffic offences is to be created. 

    An informal IWG EDR / DSSAD working group is currently working intensively on the definition of an Event Data Recorder (EDR) for conventional vehicles (mandatory in the EU from 2022) and an EDR for automated vehicles. As a member of the informal working group, the Allianz Center for Technology contributes the position of Allianz and the perspective of the insurance industry.

    On the one hand, this paper presents the relevance and the need for EDR data based on real insurance claims on German highways. On the other hand, it examines which data an EDR should record in the future to ensure objective accident investigation within a reasonable amount of time.

    The research work was technically supported by the University of Technology Ingolstadt (THI), the European Association for Accident Research and Accident Reconstruction (EVU) and the TÜV Süd.

  • Example of a tool for front radar calibration

    Especially in the last few years the market penetration of these driver assistance systems has risen significantly. The assessment and repair of damages is more complex as the additional technology is installed in these vehicles.
    Under the lead of the AZT, a joint resolution on damage repair for vehicles with driver assistance systems was therefore elaborated together with representatives of vehicle manufacturers, body and paint associations, assessors and insurance companies. The aim of this resolution is to establish a common understanding for all parties involved in the claims process with regard to a technically correct approach to the assessment and repair of driver assistance systems. The annual meeting of the German Committee for Standards in Paint and Bodywork (Deutsche Kommission für Lack und Karosserieinstandsetzung) took place at the AZT on March 3rd 2020. One of the outcomes was the adoption of “the resolution on damage repair for vehicles with driver assistance systems“.
    A free copy of the original resolution in German language can be downloaded here.
    An English translation of this document is also available.

  • In times of increasing automation and connection these data become more and more extensive. Since vehicle assistance systems today do not prevent every accident but can certainly have a significant influence, event-related data from the vehicle has become absolutely essential for accident investigation. In Germany, the amendment to the Road Traffic Act (§ 63a StVG) has for the first time regulated data processing, including data recording in the sense of a driving mode memory (DSSAD), for highly and fully automated vehicles. However the data elements defined therein are not sufficient to clarify the causes of accidents and the associated liability issues. The General Safety Regulation of the EU, revised in 2019, requires the storage of event and driving mode data from 2022 onwards. However the specification of this data by a UNECE regulation is still pending. 

    Allianz SE has taken a position on this issue and is claiming for the storage of a standardized minimum set of data following an accident as well as the transparent handling of this data. 

    Enclosed is a short video interview with Dr. Lauterwasser on the storage and use of data, especially in automated driving:

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    Principles of the data custodian procedure

  • Source: CES®

    DVR delegation at the BMW stand of CES, from left to right, Clemens Klinke, DVR Vice President, Member of the Board of Management DEKRA SE; Dr. Johann Gwehenberger, Deputy Chairman of the DVR Board of Management Committee for Automotive Engineering, AZT; Prof. Dr. Walter Eichendorf, President DVR, Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser, Managing Director AZT; Prof. Kurt Bodewig, DVR Vice President, DVW President; Patrick Fruth, CEO TÜV Süd Auto Service GmbH; Prof. Klaus Kompass, BMW Head of Vehicle Safety 

    The CES (formal known as the Consumer Electronics Show) is one of the world's largest trade fairs for consumer electronics. Due to the increasing merging of automotive engineering, mechatronics, electronics, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, robotics and information and communication technology, the show has become one of the most important industry meetings for the automotive industry for about a decade, especially with regard to electromobility and automation. This is partly because german and international manufacturers and suppliers have shifted many developments relevant to automated driving to the USA and China. 

    The main objective of the DVR delegation was to view and realistically assess the current developments and innovations in the field of road safety worldwide. In a tight program and many presentations, e.g. at the booths of Audi, Bosch, BMW, Continental, Mercedes and Valeo, the DVR delegation members discussed the safety potential and possible implementation scenarios of automated driving functions with the experts. In this context, it became clear that since the still rather rudimentary developments with full-bodied announcements in January 2016, there are now often functions for automated driving that are ready for series production. At the same time the estimation of future developments has become much more realistic. The focus has changed from fully autonomous driving to cooperative driving as well as partially and fully automated functions in defined areas (so-called Operational Design Domains). This development is promising for road safety on the way to "Vision Zero". In particular the discussions showed the increasing performance of the systems through further developed sensor technology, networking and powerful data processing in the coming vehicle generations.

    Source: CES®

    Elaine Chao, US Secretary of Transportation, presented for the first time the new report of the US government on the technology of automated driving ("Automated Vehicles 4.0").

  • When transporting a Christmas tree on the vehicle roof, make sure that it is securely fastened with lashing straps (see picture). Simple rubber expanders are not sufficient.

  • Presentation of Repair & ADAS functionality by Dr. Lauterwasser

    As representatives of the AZT, Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser and Carsten Reinkemeyer have participated the conference. This is the first time that the RCAR annual conference was held in China, and according to Haimao Jia, president of CIRI, it is a great honor for the institute to host this event and welcome RCAR members and their partners to Beijing.


    42 experts from the insurers' research institutes dealt with the following significant topics, among others:

    Jaewon Lee (KART) from Korea now leads the ADAS working group which deals with the effects of the repair methodology on sensor technology; calibration methodology and diagnostic equipment.

    In relation to electromobility the current damage of batteries and its effects on the insurance industry were discussed with regard to a) the manufacturer's regulation and b) the reduction effect of insurers.

    Exchange on the current status of autonomous and connected vehicles & cyber security.

  • The e-mobility experts from Cleanelectric discussed, among other things, the special properties of electric vehicles and their influence on crash behaviour, their relevance from the insurance point of view and the future of e-mobility. The result is an interesting podcast that can be downloaded from and from the current streaming platforms such as Spotify and Deezer under "Cleanelectric".

  • In order to provide a fair and correct explanation of accidents, even in modern vehicles, Allianz is calling for better transparency and uniform standards for data stored in cars. At the 7th Allianz Autotag on September 19th , 2019 at the Allianz Center for Technology, Allianz board members and experts discussed digital accident reporting with representatives of the mobility industry.

    Allianz Germany CEO, Dr. Klaus-Peter Röhler, who gave insights on the future of mobility and the role of the insurance industry in his welcome speech. Afterwards the cooperation between ADAC and Allianz, within the framework of ADAC auto insurance, was presented and Frank Sommerfeld, board of private property insurance business, informed about current developments of E-scooters and BonusDrive. 

    After the keynote of Joachim Müller, Management Board Allianz Deutschland, experts from Allianz, the automotive industry, science and the authorities discussed the main topic of the day - digital accident clarification for modern vehicles. The relevance of this topic was illustrated by a live crash of a car on a pedestrian dummy initiated by the AZT team on the court of the Allianz Center for Technology. 

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    The requirements of the Allianz regarding transparency and uniform standards for data stored in cars and further details on the subject can be found in a published press release.

    Allianz's key positions on digital accident reporting:

    • Allianz calls for more transparency on the vehicle data stored in the vehicle in the event of a traffic accident. Vehicle owners must be able to easily and uncomplicatedly obtain information about the data stored in their cars.

    • The standards currently being developed by the EU for future accident data memories and driving mode memories must be suitable for solving traffic accidents involving modern vehicles. A short frame of a few seconds before and after the accident is sufficient.

    • In particular interventions by driver assistance systems must be stored if they are closely related to an accident. This is necessary because driver assistance systems are increasingly influencing the outcome of accidents. 

    • In the case of damage of property it should be up to the person concerned to decide whether his vehicle's data should be used for accident clarification. If people are injured or killed, or if it is a criminal offence, the public interest in clarifying the question of guilt prevails. In this case the data may also be used against the will of the person concerned.

    • Allianz recommends an independent trustee to whom the data required for accident clarification will be transferred for highly automated and fully automated vehicles. No interested party should have exclusive access to this data - neither one of the parties involved in the accident nor the vehicle manufacturer or insurer.


    Opening speech by Allianz Germany CEO, Dr. Klaus-Peter Röhler

    Frank Sommerfeld , board of private property insurance business , provides information on new trends in road traffic and their impact on road safety

    In the panel discussion Jochen Haug explains a model for the transparent, standardised and fair handling of data in the context of accident clarification

    Key Note of Joachim Müller, Management Board Allianz Deutschland,  on the use of data to clarify accidents

    Crash test with pedestrian dummy PRIMUS breakable from CTS

    Dummy diagnosis after the crash

    Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser (Managing Director of the AZT) together with the moderator FeroAndersen at the crash vehicle

    Sach Privat-Vorstand Frank Sommerfeld informierte über neue Trends im Straßenverkehr und über die Auswirkungen auf die Verkehrssicherheit.

    Panel discussion on digital accident clarification

    Participants of the panel discussion (from left to right): Gundolf de Riese-Meyer (Police Headquarters Düsseldorf), Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser (Managing Director AZT), Jochen Haug (Claims Director Allianz Versicherungs-AG), Dr. Michael Weyde (Expert for Accident Reconstruction)

    Representation of the AZT - Event Data Recorder (EDR)

  • DeTomaso - Test of braking performance, picture: Andreas Kronthaler

    Owning and maintaining classic cars has always been an emotional hobby: the vehicles remind of old times and offer a highly individual driving experience. In addition classic cars are real eye-catchers - 42% of all Germans are happy when they see a vintage car.

    According to the IfD Allensbach Oldtimer Study around 22% of all people in Germany (around 15 million) are interested in classic cars and motorcycles.

    Today there are about 750.000 cars on our roads in Germany which are more than 30 years old and unfortunately are occasionally involved in accidents.

    With that in mind, the AZT, together with other partners carried out an up-to-date analysis of KH and VK collision damage. In cooperation with the Graz University of Technology the structure of classic car accidents as well as the causes and consequences of accidents were analysed in detail. In this context a comparison of the brake delays for selected vintage cars and newer vehicles was carried out as a very useful addition to the activities of the analytically active expert.

    The key finding of the study is that the incidence of accidents in vintage cars differs significantly from that of current vehicle generations. This is due in particular to different driving dynamics characteristics and the maintenance condition of the vehicles. For example, sudden vehicle damage was often observed as the cause of accidents in vintage cars. In addition, the use of classic cars - rarely as everyday vehicles, often as hobby and leisure vehicles - has an impact on accident typology. The brake deceleration measurements also show how clearly the performance of classic car brake systems is inferior to that of today's vehicle models. This also contributes to the typical accident occurrence of classic vehicles and must be taken into account by the vehicle expert in individual cases, e.g. in accident analysis and accident reconstruction.

    The complete results of the study can be found in the following article (in german language only) which was published in the VKU.

  • A day at the paint shop.

    At the AZT, young people regularly take the opportunity to gain an impression of the practical application of automotive technology and to contribute their knowledge in form of internships or working student activities. It is an enrichment for both sides.

    Following Vincent states about his time within the Allianz:

    I decided to do this internship as I have always been interested in cars and the crash track of the AZT.

    Monday, 15th of July 2019

    At first I was warmly welcomed by my supervisor Mr. Kitzmann. I introduced myself to the colleagues throughout the day. The tasks of the AZT were illustrated with the help of lectures and presentations. In exchange with employees the function of the crash track was explained and I was able to learn detailed information about the course of an accident reconstruction. At the end of the day I was taking part at a guided tour of the building where I have received further information about the AZT.

    Tuesday, 16th of July 2019

    I spent the day in the paint shop and had the opportunity to watch the professionals how to repair car parts. For the preparation of a paint job the following was done: Every single step is documented, even the removal and putting on of the protective clothing. I was able to take a lot of information from the repair shop. In between I helped my colleagues to scan documents.

    Wednesday, 17th of July 2019

    On Wednesday I have looked over the expert's shoulder when investigating hail damage. The damage is calculated with the assistance of a computer program. First the affected car drives into the hail scanner. The number of scanned dents is then displayed on the PC and the damage can be calculated. The analysis of the hail scanner is verified by hand with a dent mirror.

    Dent mirror for the detection of hail damage.

    Thursday, 18th of July 2019

    Today the work from Tuesday was finished. In the paint shop the colleagues first mixed the colour - already determined for the bumper- out of ten different colours. In the next step they painted and assembled the bumper. The colour of the painted bumper corresponded perfectly with the one the car. At the end of the day an employee explained the high-speed cameras of the crash track.

    Friday, 19th of July 2019  

    The last day of my internship I spent on the huge Allianz Campus in Unterföhring. There I have learned a lot about the office work of the colleagues who send the experts home to the customers. A special computer program is used in order to inspect the damage there. Alternatively the damage is examined via livestream.

    Conclusion: In the end, I have to say, I have learned a lot about painting, repairing and assembling car parts. I have also learned a lot about the crash track. I was particularly surprised by the latest technology which the AZT´s team work with efficiently. The content of my internship was great and I have enjoyed the week within the Allianz. 

  • Hail scanner: The vehicles of the affected Allianz customers are inspected with the latest technology.

    12th of July, 1984 shortly before 8 p.m.: A bright yellow sky announced the hailstorm disaster in Munich. A ghostly backdrop. Minutes later an inferno broke out: huge ice grains up to the size of a tennis ball pelted on people, animals, houses, cars, fields and gardens. 

    The result: Three dead, more than 300 injured, over 200,000 damaged cars and further property damage amounting to more than three billion marks within 20 minutes - the largest loss event in the history of the German insurance industry to date. At that time, the dent repair technique was not yet known, so every dent was knocked out, smoothed and painted. The vehicle repair costs for most motor vehicles were higher than the current market value, so that a total loss was incurred. In 1984 there were no laptops yet, so that an expert opinion for the experts in the AZT was much more time-consuming and costly than today. All dents, on average between 50 and 250 per vehicle, were counted and recorded manually.

    A newspaper advertisement of Allianz in 1984. It says: "Allianz to all customers: We pay."

    On Whit Monday 2019, 10th of June, a similar storm has happened again in the Munich region. Hail grains with a diameter of up to six centimetres crashed through car and window panes during the night on Tuesday and caused numerous other damage to buildings.

    Many cars resemble a lunar landscape. They are covered with dents caused by hailstones. Allianz is currently expecting up to 20,000 damage cases. The total expenses for cars and the other property insurance is estimated at around 190 million Euro. For the insurers, this means peak period.

    The damaged vehicles are inspected in the AZT workshop.

    Allianz has set up eight hail inspection centers - one of them at the Allianz Center for Technology (AZT) - to process the large number of claims quickly, efficiently and in a customer-oriented manner. Since June 17th, 2019 several automotive experts have been responsible for inspecting hail damage to the cars of Allianz customers here. The special feature: A modern hail scanner, which enables the fast, automated recording of hail damage to vehicles following mass damage events caused by storms, supports Allianz colleagues in their work.  In addition, the AZT workshop offers the perfect infrastructure to ensure the best possible organizational process. As early as 2018, the AZT was working on a scientific project on hail damage. The laboratory test deals with an analysis of different carbon fibre reinforced plastics (e.g. carbon) regarding hail resistance.

    Further information on the practical test can be found in our topic "Hagelschaden" ("hail damage" - in German language only).

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  • In cooperation with international institutes (RCAR), the AZT has further developed the virtual key requirements, published in Germany last year, into a globally applicable standard. "This is the first global standard for IT security in the theft protection of motor vehicles which can be used uniformly in all markets as a basis for developers and as a basis for the regulation of total theft by insurers," says Jochen Haug, member of the Allianz Board of Management responsible for claims.

    The requirements for virtual vehicle keys, according to the international RCAR standard, can be downloaded here.

    Further details on the virtual vehicle key can be found in our current Allianz press release (in German language only).

  • "Despite good successes in recent years, there is still considerable potential for improvement in the area of pedestrian safety. 4,000 injured and in some years up to 70 killed pedestrians in Austria cannot and must not simply be tolerated".

    This statement by Xaver Wölfl, board member of Allianz Austria, illustrates the international relevance of pedestrian safety.

    On Wednesday, 22 May, the Allianz Pedestrian Study was presented to the Austrian press in Vienna. Xaver Wölfl and Dr. Jörg Kubitzki, traffic psychologist from AZT and author of the study, presented selected results and answered journalists' questions.

    The report of Allianz Austria and the corresponding press release in German language can be downloaded here.

  • Joachim Müller, Management Board Allianz Deutschland, on the right: Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser, Managing Director of the Allianz Zentrum für Technik

    Less sound. eMobility. E-scooters.

    On Saturday, 25th May, the Formula-E racing cars did their laps in Berlin. The Formula-E is a family-friendly event with a large supporting program around the race. Visitors are able to experience the future of mobility and learn about the climate-friendly and sustainable economy. Many large companies are represented off the track on the Tempelhof field. Allianz also presented itself as a partner of motor sports with a stand in the sponsor area. Joachim Müller (Management Board Allianz Deutschland)  and Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser (Managing Director of the Allianz Zentrum für Technik) have already been on site the day before. In discussion with Allianz Corporate Communication, Joachim Müller explained why Allianz is involved in Formula-E: “Sustainability is an extremely important issue for us. We have been climate-neutral since 2013 and are working to ensure that in future. Allianz will also generate all the electricity for all global companies from green electricity. Formula-E supports this goal enormously. The pioneering technology in formula racing will ultimately be seen on the roads later. And that's why we're here."

    This year the E-scooter is the focus of attention in Berlin. E-scooters are allowed to participate officially on the road from 15th of June, in case they are insured. Allianz wants to promote new mobility concepts with low rates. Joachim Müller announced "we will be the market leader for e-scooters". The whole interview with the Tagesspiegel in german language is available here.

  • Isabella Ostermaier (right in the picture) receives the ADAC Young Talent Award from Dr. Andrea David

    Isabella Ostermaier, former master student in accident research at Allianz Zentrum für Technik, was awarded the UFO Young Investigators Price 2019 of the ADAC Foundation for her master thesis on "effectiveness analysis of automated driving functions".

    The price was awarded at the symposium for accident research and road safety on April 2nd  and 3rd , 2019. Her thesis deals with the effects of autonomous driving (SAE Level 3 und 4) on road safety. The accident prevention potential of automated driving functions in the next 20 years is unfortunately not as high as presumed. 


    By supporting young scientists in the field of accident research and road safety, the ADAC Foundation would like to give young researchers the opportunity to present their work to experts. This year's pricewinner was selected by the UFO Expert Advisory Board, a committee of external experts. The award was presented by Dr. Andrea David, Chairman of the ADAC Foundation.


    The former TU student, Isabella Ostermaier, has been project manager in accident research at the ADAC Technik Zentrum in Landsberg since October 2018.


    The AZT team congratulates Isabella Ostermaier!

  • A current traffic safety study by Allianz on the mobility and safety of pedestrians shows which accident situations are most dangerous, how high the distraction potential of smartphones & Co. is and which technology can help to prevent accidents.

    The safety of pedestrians remains an important issue. In Germany, more than 400 pedestrians still die in road traffic every year (2018: 457). Nevertheless, pedestrians are often not considered independently in the context of road safety. According to Allianz, however, pedestrian safety must not be allowed to sink into the broad spectrum of problems faced by "unprotected road users" and pedestrians need their own public image. For this reason, Dr. Jörg Kubitzki, accident scientist at the Allianz Center for Technology, developed the study "Sicher zu Fuß – Mobilität und Sicherheit von Fußgängern".

    Core results of the study are among others:

    • More than half of the pedestrians killed are over 64 years old.

    • Distraction also plays an important role with pedestrians. Listening to music and texting are special accident risk factors.

    • Every fourth pedestrian collision occurs when reversing.

    • Improved pedestrian recognition and automatic emergency braking are also required when reversing.

    • Allianz recommends updating the European Parliament's Pedestrian Charter.

    Further information can be found in the study and the related press release (both documents in German only).

  • In several countries there is a legal requirement that under icy or snowy road conditions dedicated winter tyres have to be used. Therefore motorists know the necessity to change the vehicle tyres. Hence many car owners are forced to transport their car wheels from A to B. Especially with compact cars, transporting the wheels to change the tyres poses a greater challenge, as the wheels cannot be transported lying down in the boot for space reasons. In many cases, the wheels are therefore placed upright next to each other in the load compartment and the rear seat is released in its lock, as otherwise the tailgate cannot be closed.

    As practical as this procedure is, however, it can also be dangerous: The rear bench can fall over and the wheels roll against or between the front seats even in the event of minor unevenness or braking. This is not only an enormous distraction for the driver, it also increases the risk of injury. To illustrate this, the AZT showed recordings of a normal ride as well as of a crash test. You can see the results in the video at the end of the page.

    The transport of unsecured wheels inside a passenger car can not only be dangerous but may also not comply with the legal requirements in your country. At least for your own safety the goods in a vehicle must be secured in such a way that they can’t slip, fall over, roll back and forth or fall down even in the event of emergency braking or sudden evasive movement. The approved technical rules must be obeyed.

     The following points must therefore be observed when transporting wheels in passenger cars:

    • Either you place the wheels in the hold and lash them individually or you place them upright next to each other in the hold and pull a lashing strap through the lashing eyes of the vehicle and centrally through the rims.

    • The securing must be carried out with suitable lashing straps (GS symbol, undamaged, sufficient tensile force).

    • The maximum tensile force of the belts is given in daN (decanewton). As a rule of thumb, the value of the tensile force in daN should be 25 times higher than the mass of the load in kg. An example of the lashing of four wheels: Depending on tyre size and rim, the weight of a car wheel is between approx. 15 and 25 kg. The maximum tractive force of the belt should therefore be at least 1500 daN (= 4 x 15 x 25).

    • Single wheels can also be stowed in the footwell behind the passenger seat, but only if the passenger seat remains unoccupied.

    • In the event of an accident, the seat belts on the unoccupied rear seat can stabilize the backrest in such a way that the wheels in the hold do not additionally endanger the front passengers.

     If these rules are followed, it can be best ensured that the wheels do not injure the vehicle occupants in the event of a rear-end collision.

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  • The Ismaninger Schaefflertanz is performed by the members of the Bauerntheater Ismaning. The seven-year rhythm of the Munich Schaeffler is adhered to.

    It is a traditional guild dance of the Schaeffler (barrel makers).

  • A test setup with the following details was tested: 

    • Frontal impact at 50 km/h

    • The roof box was loosely loaded with winter sports equipment (skis, ski boots, ice stick, drink bottles). The permissible load capacity of the roof box was not exceeded. 

    • The load was not secured in the roof box, as is often the case.

    The following results were obtained in the crash test:

    • The unsecured contents of the roof box shifted to the front due to the acceleration forces acting, the skis broke through the front wall of the box almost unbraked. 

    • In addition, the roof box was partially detached from the base carrier because the clamp fastenings, which were open on one side, could not withstand the forces.

    The following video illustrates the consequences of an incorrectly loaded roof box in a frontal collision at 50 km/h. The roof box was not loaded correctly when the frontal collision took place.

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    The following recommendations can be derived from the observations described:

    • When using a roof box, check the permissible roof load. These can be found in the operating manual of your vehicle. As part of the test, the weight of the roof box, roof rack and load must be added together.

    • Also check the load capacity of the roof rack, which is specified in its operating instructions.

    • Do not load the roof box beyond its maximum payload. Heavy individual items, e.g. ski boots, should be stowed at the bottom of the trunk and preferably not in the roof box. Bulky items that can be easily lashed down (e.g. skis) as well as lighter items (e.g. clothing, ski helmets) can be transported in the roof box.

    • When attaching the roof rack and roof box, follow the manufacturer's installation instructions carefully. Preference should be given to roof boxes whose fastening elements completely enclose the rail of the roof rack.

    • The roof box should offer good lashing possibilities on the inside with stable lashing eyes and/or brackets to secure the load. These lashing devices should be made of metal. Plastic can become brittle in winter, is generally more sensitive to impact and can be damaged, for example, by hard objects such as ski bindings when loaded carelessly.

    • When driving with a roof box, pay attention to the changed driving behaviour of the vehicle. The higher centre of gravity makes the vehicle more unstable when cornering or braking. The superstructure also changes the aerodynamics of the vehicle and makes the car more susceptible to wind.

    • And think of the changed headroom! This applies especially to higher vehicles such as vans, SUVs etc. when entering underground garages.

    • Also remember to check or adjust the tyre pressure before starting the journey if there is an additional load.

    • The total payload with passengers, luggage and superstructures must not exceed the permissible total weight of the vehicle.

    The AZT wishes you a good and accident-free journey!

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    We have two safety recommendations for the contemplative and wintry season:


    When transporting a Christmas tree on the vehicle roof, make sure that it is securely fastened. Simple clamping rubbers are not enough, as our test shows:

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    Video: The Christmas tree was fastened here only with elastic bands. These do not withstand the load.

    The tree should be fastened better with tension belts (pay attention to the CE seal):

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    Video: Here the Christmas tree was fastened with neat tension straps and stays safely on the roof.

  • In the first two films, the subjects of buckling up in the car and wearing a helmet when riding a bicycle were discussed, but now the blind spot of a truck is explained. The AZT experts will receive prominent support from Nina Moghaddam, who, together with twelve-year-old Lukas and safety researcher Carsten Reinkemeyer, will provide insights into the dangers of the blind spot and explain to children what they need to pay particular attention to in road traffic.

    Blind spots are areas on cars, trucks or other motorised vehicles that are difficult or impossible to see. Anyone who has ever sat in a truck knows how difficult it is for the driver to see the surroundings. Despite mirrors, pedestrians and cyclists are often barely visible to the driver because they are in a blind spot. According to analyses by the German Federal Highway Research Institute (Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen), almost 700 cyclists and pedestrians are killed or injured each year in accidents caused by the blind spot in a truck turning right.

    An important reason for the accidents is the movement of the truck when turning off. In order not to cut the bend, they first drive straight ahead into the intersection before turning sharply. The rear wheels ride closer to the roadside - e.g. the cycle path - than the front wheels. A cyclist or pedestrian recognizes this too late and can´t leave the danger zone in time.

    That's why cyclists and pedestrians should never overtake trucks on the right and keep an eye on the rear. "Even if the cyclist has the right of way, he should slow down and check by looking over his shoulder whether the way is really free," says Carsten Reinkemeyer.

    In cooperation with the German Road Safety Council (DVR) the DVD is made available to all schools and the police in Germany. Copying and distribution for non-commercial purposes is expressly permitted.

    Further information can be found in the press release (German version) on the subject and in the supplementary material (German version) on the DVD.

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    3rd safety film for children: „Schon gewusst? – der tote Winkel“

    Related Videos

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    1st safety film: 
    „Willi Weitzel hat´s geschnallt – Kinder: Richtig anschnallen“

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    2nd safety film: 
    „Willi Weitzel hat´s geschnallt – Fahrradfahren: Immer mit Helm!“


    At the 6th “Allianz Autotag” at the end of September at the AZT, Allianz board members, AZT experts and representatives of the automotive and mobility industries discussed the topic of "Parking 4.0". The AZT presented a new test standard for actively braking parking and manoeuvring systems, which was developed together with international partners.

    The topic of parking plays a major role in today's traffic: The search for a parking space causes one third of the traffic in European city centres. On average, we spend 41 hours a year searching for a parking space. In Germany, drivers spend an average of ten minutes looking for a parking space, covering a distance of several kilometers (Source: Siemens 2015, Statista 2017). In Munich, 12.5 percent of the traffic area or more than 5,300 square kilometers serve as parking space. This puts Munich at the top in Germany (Source: Ubeeqo 2017).

    The topic of parking is also of great relevance to insurance companies. Almost every second reported claim in motor insurance is related to a parking and manoeuvring accident. For these losses alone, around 3.4 billion Euro are paid out annually to customers and injured third parties in Germany. Consequently, not only the automotive industry is interested in the further development of parking and manoeuvring assistants. A recent study by the German Association of Insurers (GDV) with the participation of the AZT shows that two thirds of all parking accidents could be avoided with the help of actively braking parking and manoeuvring systems. This involves possible savings of about 2.1 billion Euro per year for the insurance industry. Managing Director of the AZT Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser sums it up strikingly: "One of our biggest opponents is the bollard.”

    Current technological developments in the automotive sector as well as in support of parking traffic and their possible effects on motor insurance were discussed with experts from the respective fields in a panel discussion. What it looks like, for example, when a car actively brakes with technical support in parking or manoeuvring situations, was demonstrated live to the audience on site. A BMW was first driven towards a bollard serving as a test object, then towards a "soft vehicle target" in order to demonstrate the automatic, independent braking of the vehicle. These scenarios also served to illustrate the new test standard for actively braking parking and manoeuvring systems, which the AZT developed together with international partners and which was presented to the public for the first time at the “Allianz Autotag”. 

    Further details on the test standard, the recommendations of Allianz derived from it and the most important positions of Allianz on the subject of "Parking 4.0" are summarized in a press release.

    Pictures and Videos

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    Summary report on the 6th Allianz Autotag

    Panel discussion on the future of parking with representatives from the automotive, mobility and insurance industries

    Panel discussion on the future of parking with representatives from the automotive, mobility and insurance industries

    Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser, Managing Director of the AZT, explains the new test standard for actively braking parking and manoeuvring protection systems to journalists

    Dr. Christoph Lauterwasser, Managing Director of the AZT, explains the new test standard for actively braking parking and manoeuvring protection systems to journalists

    “Soft Vehicle Target" as test object in the context of the new test standard

    “Soft Vehicle Target" as test object in the context of the new test standard

    Reverse AEB - test with bollard as test object

    Reverse AEB - test with bollard as test object

  • Theft is a relevant topic for auto insurance and leads to high average claims amounts. This results significantly increased claims costs for a large number of vehicle models. 

    For this reason AZT has, amongst other things, been working on vehicle theft prevention for several decades. A significant result in this regard was the introduction of a legal requirement for electronic immobilizers in newly registered vehicles from 1998, which was based on the standards and requirements developed by experts at AZT. 

    Currently the development and integration of electronic components in the automotive industry is entering a new dimension as more and more innovative and networked comfort and customer functions are launched on the market. Among other developments, the first OEMs are now also starting to offer their customers a virtual key as an additional option alongside the conventional physical car key when purchasing a vehicle. So the smartphone is becoming a car key. In future, the driver will use the app to unlock and start the vehicle; the key is going virtual. 

    Virtual keys and other digital after-sale services rely on globally networked systems. The keys bring with them not only an increase in comfort but also new attack vectors on the interfaces between the entities in these networked systems. What about data security for example, what happens when the system is hacked? 

    The technology also leads to many questions for insurance, in particular in the case of total theft. Until now, the customer would present the complete set of keys to the insurer for the settlement of the claim. In principle, this also applies for the virtual car key. No customer will want to send their smartphone to their insurer in the case of total theft.

    To counter these challenges, AZT analyzed the virtual vehicle key system, and looked at the current and potential future risks and attack vectors in order to formulate the requirements for virtual vehicle keys. This resulted in guidelines covering the design of virtual vehicle keys as well as the storage and processing of the respective data. With this, auto manufacturers are given a set of guidelines, applicable to all technologies and manufacturers, that serve to retain or increase the level of protection offered to the customer and their vehicle by the current immobilizers.

    The four most important requirements for the virtual vehicle key

    • The virtual vehicle key must not be able to be copied, and, as with a physical key, the number of keys in circulation must be transparent.

    • A clear, transparent and fixed list of all authorized vehicle users must be available to the customer, and to the insurer in a loss event. In the case of total theft, the customer must also be able to immediately revoke all virtual keys in a demonstrable manner.

    • Authorization to enter the vehicle must be separate from authorization to drive the vehicle, so as to not undermine the existing layer of protection offered by the electronic immobilizer and to ensure the security of future service models such as "Delivery to the car boot".

    • The data environment used to access and store the virtual key must be completely separate from other applications. The processing and storage of all security-critical data, such as authorizations and key calculations, must be confined to a secure storage and execution environment.

    A full description of AZT's requirements for virtual vehicle keys can be found here:

    Requirements for virtual vehicle keys

    Pictures and videos

    Berechtigung zum Motorstart mittels Virtuellem Fahrzeugschlüssel

    Authorization to start engine by means of virtual vehicle key


    Angriffsvektoren auf das Ökosystem Virtueller Fahrzeugschlüssel

    Attack vectors on the ecosystem virtual vehicle key



    Ökosystem Virtueller Fahrzeugschlüssel

    Ecosystem virtual vehicle key


    The key findings of the tests were:

    • Many standard bike racks available on the market are not suitable for transporting pedelecs due to their heavy weight. The maximum total permissible weight of the rack indicated by the manufacturer must always be observed. This goes for both rooftop racks and models that are attached to the tow-bar.

    • For rooftop racks the maximum roof load of the car must also be taken into account.

    • In the tests, the fastening of the pedelecs to the car failed. This caused damage to the bike and the car, even in every day driving situations. So the key factor is not just the total load on the rack, but also the load on each of the rack's holding rails. If an individual holding rail is overloaded, it will break and not be able to hold the pedelec in place anymore.

    • In a frontal crash test with a rooftop rack, the pedelecs were shot from the roof like bullets, which would pose a serious danger to other road users in the case of a real accident involving pedelecs transported in this manner.

    • Bike racks that are mounted on the rear of the car are recommended because, in the case of a head-on collision, the pedelecs will be pressed up against the vehicle and are therefore less likely to become detached.

    For this reason, AZT recommends that pedelecs be transported on the rear of the vehicle. In addition, you should ensure that the rack and the individual holding rails are designed for the weight of a pedelec before using it to transport them. During any pauses in the journey the rack should be checked to make sure that all fastenings are still intact and that the pedelecs are still securely attached.

    The following film gives more information on the tests and the results.


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    Pictures and videos

    Crashversuch mit Pedelecs auf dem Fahrraddach auf dem Schlitten

    Crash test with pedelecs on the car roof on the test sled


    Fahrversuche (Brems- und Ausweichmanöver) mit Pedelecs auf dem Heckträger

    Driving tests (braking and avoidance manoeuvres) with pedelecs on the rear bicycle carrier



    Crashversuch mit Pedelecs auf dem Fahrraddach auf dem Schlitten

    Crash test with pedelecs on the car roof on the test sled


    Fahrversuche (Fahrbahnunebenheiten) mit Pedelecs auf dem Heckträger

    Driving tests (road unevenness) with pedelecs on the rear bicycle carrier